IBA Prince Edward County South Shore
Picton, Ontario
Site Summary
ON003 Latitude
43.896° N
76.996° W
75 - 90 m
279.31 km²
coniferous forest (temperate), deciduous woods (temperate), freshwater lake, freshwater marsh, abandoned & fallow farmland/disturbed ground
Land Use:
Nature conservation and research, Tourism/recreation
Potential or ongoing Threats:
Disturbance, Other environmental events
IBA Criteria: Globally Significant: Congregatory Species, Waterfowl Concentrations, Nationally Significant: Colonial Waterbird/Seabird Concentrations
Conservation status: IBA Conservation Plan written/being written, International Monarch Butterfly Reserve, National Wildlife Area (federal)
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Site Description
The IBA is on the south shore of Prince Edward County between Point Petre and Prince Edward Point. It is comprised of approximately 26 square kilometres of land and 65 square kilometres of near shore waters. The land portion of the IBA lies between the lake and its northern boundary formed by Army Reserve Road, Hill Top Road to the hamlet of South Bay. From South Bay the northern limit of the IBA follows the shoreline of the peninsula including Flatt Point, Half Moon Point, and Point Traverse to Prince Edward Point. The entire Long Point Peninsula, including the Prince Edward Point National Wildlife Area (NWA) home to the Prince Edward Point Bird Observatory, lies within the IBA. In 1995, Prince Edward Point was designated an International Monarch Butterfly Reserve. Along Hilltop Road, the Hastings Prince Edward Land Trust has established the Miller Family Nature Reserve. Little Bluff Conservation Area (Quinte Conservation) is situated along County Rd 13 near Half Moon Point. The south shore of the IBA encompasses about 30 kilometres of shoreline, the only lengthy, undeveloped strip of shoreline remaining in Prince Edward County - indeed, one of the few shorelines of Lake Ontario that has remained undeveloped (Ross 1999). The IBA contains Point Petre, a large Provincial Wildlife Area, and the Ostrander Point Crown land Block.

The land area of the IBA is comprised of shallow soil over limestone bedrock with areas of alvar habitat. Much of the habitat consists of old field (savannah) and shrub thickets, with small deciduous and coniferous forests being present. In addition to several natural wetlands, the IBA contains two large wetland areas created after berm construction by Ducks Unlimited. The IBA is important for concentrations of migrating birds, bats and butterflies and also supports several rare vascular plants including Four-leaved Milkweed, Butternut, Bicknell's Sedge, Short-stalked Chickweed, Brainerd's Hawthorn, Limestone Hedge-hyssop, Green Arrow-arum, White-tinged Sedge, Eastern Few-fruited Sedge, Ram's-head Lady's-slipper, and Carolina Whitlow-grass. Largely undisturbed sites are important to ensure survival of these plants.

The near shore waters of the IBA in Lake Ontario extend from the mouth of the Black River across the sheltered waters of South Bay, around Prince Edward Point and west to Soup Harbour. The waters between the end of the Long Point Peninsula and Timber Island are also within the IBA.
In total, some 298 species of birds have been recorded at Prince Edward Point with about 220 species being recorded during the average year. Most of these species are recorded during migration, although at least 74 species nest within the area. The number and diversity of landbirds that concentrate in this small area during spring and fall migration is outstanding. A total of 162 landbird species (excluding raptors) have been recorded at this site including 36 species of wood warbler, 20 species of sparrow, and 12 species of flycatcher. Daily censuses during migration indicated that peak numbers of common migrants such as Tree Swallow, Blue Jay, Black-capped Chickadee, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dark-eyed Junco and White-throated Sparrow were regularly in the range of 200 to 500 individuals. When weather conditions caused particularly large concentrations, numbers of these species were occasionally in excess of 2,000 birds and in some cases as high as 10,000 (Tree Swallow, Yellow-rumped Warbler, White-throated Sparrow) or even 70,000 (Dark-eyed Junco).

The shoals and deep waters off the tip of the peninsula are an important waterfowl staging and wintering area, for Greater Scaup, Long-tailed Duck and White-winged Scoter. Numbers of scaup (mostly Greater Scaup) approach 10,000 regularly (greater than 1% of their estimated N.A. population) with a recent one-day peak of 39,000 in January 1995. Over the past three years Oldsquaw have also regularly occurred in numbers greater than 1% of their estimated N.A. population with one-day peaks of 37,700 and 37,785 in January of 1996 and 1997. White-winged Scoters also occur in numbers that regularly exceed 5,000 with one day peaks in 1995 and 1996 that exceeded 1% of their estimated N.A. population (12,500 and 15,000 respectively). Other waterbirds regularly recorded in large numbers include Common Loon, Horned Grebe, Common Goldeneye, Common Merganser and Red-breasted Merganser.

During fall migration, large numbers of raptors, both diurnal and nocturnal, move over the Point. Up to 2,000 hawks a day can regularly be observed including large numbers of Sharp-shinned, Red-shouldered, and Red-tailed Hawks. Large numbers of Northern Saw-whet Owls also move through the area in the fall. This site formerly supported nesting Henslows Sparrows (globally near-threatened, nationally endangered) but nesting by this species has not been reported in recent years.

IBA Criteria
SpeciesT | A | I Links Date Season Number G C N
Acadian Flycatcher 1991 - 1999 SP 1
Bonaparte's Gull 1996 - 2018 SP 3,000 - 15,000
Brant 2007 SP 4,670 - 4,700
Chimney Swift 2016 FA 40
Common Goldeneye 1996 WI 7,884
Double-crested Cormorant 2004 - 2008 FA 13,000 - 30,000
Greater Scaup 1994 - 2017 FA 5,000 - 39,000
Greater Scaup 1996 SP 5,000
Greater Scaup 2012 WI 9,000 - 29,100
Henslow's Sparrow 1990 - 1998 FA 1
Henslow's Sparrow 1975 - 1991 SP 2
Horned Grebe 2016 FA 8,000
King Rail 2004 - 2005 SP 1 - 2
King Rail 2000 SU 1
Kirtland's Warbler 2017 SP 1
Little Gull 1993 - 2018 FA 2 - 5
Little Gull 1996 - 2016 SP 2 - 900
Little Gull 1994 - 1998 WI 2
Loggerhead Shrike 1993 - 2018 FA 1 - 2
Loggerhead Shrike 1993 - 2019 SP 1
Loggerhead Shrike 2014 SU 1
Long-tailed Duck 1995 - 2013 FA 8,000 - 10,000
Long-tailed Duck 1997 - 2019 SP 8,000 - 225,000
Long-tailed Duck 1993 - 2015 WI 8,832 - 37,785
Prothonotary Warbler 1991 - 1993 SP 1
Red-breasted Merganser 2005 FA 6,000
Red-breasted Merganser 2012 SP 2,000
Redhead 2012 - 2020 WI 4,500 - 10,000
Red-necked Grebe 2011 - 2015 FA 500 - 10,000
Red-necked Grebe 2007 - 2008 SP 500 - 1,000
Rusty Blackbird 2001 - 2018 FA 23 - 1,725
Rusty Blackbird 1993 - 2019 SP 25 - 230
Rusty Blackbird 2008 - 2013 WI 26 - 50
Waterbirds 1994 FA 39,000
White-winged Scoter 2011 - 2017 SP 4,000 - 5,000
White-winged Scoter 1995 - 1996 WI 12,500 - 15,000
Yellow-breasted Chat 1999 - 2018 FA 1
Yellow-breasted Chat 1991 - 2017 SP 1 - 2
Note: species shown in bold indicate that the maximum number exceeds at least one of the IBA thresholds (sub-regional, regional or global). The site may still not qualify for that level of IBA if the maximum number reflects an exceptional or historical occurrence.
Conservation Issues
Bird migration has been monitored at Prince Edward Point from 1975 to 1981 and more recently from 1995 to the present. As a result of these monitoring initiatives, especially those during the late 1970s, Prince Edward Point was designated as a National Wildlife Area in 1980, specifically to protect the large numbers and diversity of landbirds which use the area during spring and fall migration. The point was also designated as an International Monarch Butterfly Reserve in 1995.

Much of this area consists of long-abandoned fields that are succeeding into shrub thicket habitats. As a result, various species that formerly bred or foraged in the grasslands are no longer present. This includes the globally near-threatened, nationally endangered Henslow's Sparrow. A proposal to manage portions of the habitat for Henslow's Sparrow and other grassland species is under consideration.

The IBA Program is an international conservation initiative coordinated by BirdLife International. The Canadian co-partners for the IBA Program are Birds Canada and Nature Canada.
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